Verifying Replication Consistency with Percona’s pt-table-checksum

Replication is an important concept for improving database performance and security. In this blog post, I would like to demonstrate how the consistency between a MySQL master and a slave can be verified. We will create two Docker containers, one for the master one for the slave.

Installing the Percona Toolkit

The Percona Toolkit is a collection of useful utilities, which can be obained for free from the company’s portal. The following commands install the prerequisits, download the package and eventually the package.

Setting up a Test Environment with Docker

The following command creates and starts a docker container. Note that these are minimal examples and are not suitable for a serious environment.

Get the IP address from the master container:

You can connect to this container like this and verify the server id:

We repeat the command for the slave, but use a different id. port and name:

For simplicity, we did not use Docker links, but will rather use IP addresses assigned by Docker directly.

Replication Setup

First, we need to setup a user with replication privileges. This user will connect from the slave to the master.

Now log into the slave container and add the connection details for the master:

Now our simple slave setup is running.

Get some test data

Lets download the Sakila test database and import it into the master. It will be replicated immediately.

Verify that the data is on the slave as well:

After our setup is completed, we can proceed with Percona pt-table checksum.

Percona pt-table-checksum

The Percona pt-table-checksum tool requires the connection information of the master and the slave in a specific format. This is called the DSN (data source name), which is a coma separated string. We can store this information in a dedicated database called percona in a table called dsns. We create this table on the master. Note that the data gets replicated to the slave within the blink of an eye.

The next step involves creating permissions on the slave and the master!

The percona user is needed to run the script. Note that the IP address is this time from the (Docker) host, having the IP 172.17.0.1 by default. In real world scenarios, this script would either be run on the master or on the slave directly.

Now we need to add the information about the slave to the table we created. The Percona tool could also read this from the process list, but it is more reliable if we add the information ourselves. To do so, we add a record to the table we just created, which describes the slave DSN:

The pt-table-checksum tool the connects to the master instance and the the slave. It computes checksums of all databases and tables and compares results. You can use the tool like this:

The result shows a difference in the MySQL internal table for permissions. This is obviously not what we are interested in, as permissions are individual to a host. So we rather exclude the MySQL internal database and also the percona database, because it is not what we are interested in. Also in order to test it the tool works, we delete the last five category assignments from the table  with mysql -u root -h 172.17.0.3 -e "DELETE FROM sakila.film_category WHERE film_id > 995;" and update a row in the city table with 

Now execute the command again:

You see that there is a difference in the tables sakila.city and in the table sakila.film_category. The tool does not report the actual number of differences, but rather the number of different chunks. To get the actual differences, we need to use a different tool, which utilises the checksum table that the previous step created.

Show the differences with pt-tabel-sync

The pt-table-sync tool is the counter part for the pt-table-checksum util. It can print or even replay the SQL statements that would render the slave the same state again to be in sync with the master. We can run a dry-run first, as the tool is potentially dangerous.

With –dry-run, you only see affected tables, but not the actual data because it does not really access the databases tables in question. Use –print additionally or instead of dry-run to get a list:

The command shows how we can rename back from Innsbruck to Yuncheng again and also provides the INSERT statements to get the deleted records back.When we replace –print with –execute, the data gets written to the master and replicated to the slave. To allow this, we need to set the permissions on the master

This error indicates that updating the city table has consequences, because it is a FK to child tables. In this example, we are bold and ignore this warning. This is absolutely not recommended for real world scenarios.

The command –no-check-child-tables ignores child tables and the command –no-foreign-key-checks ignores foreign keys.

Run the checksum command again to verify that the data has been restored:

0 DIFFS, we are done!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Continue reading


WAMS Containerstandorte in Innsbruck

Der Verein WAMS ist ein Sozialbetrieb mit dem Ziel Arbeitsplätze für Menschen zu schaffen, die aufgrund ihrer besonderen Lebenssituationen im konventionellen Arbeitsmarkt benachteiligt werden. Ein besonderes Augenmerk des Vereins liegt auch auf dem Recyclinggedanken und der Wiederverwertung von Ressourcen. Aus diesem Grund betreut und betreibt der Verein auch Altkleidersammelstellen und verwertet das gespendete Gewand. Eine Liste der Standorte dieser gelben Container befindet sich im Flyer von WAMS, der auf der Vereinshomepage bezogen werden kann. Für all jene, denen die Innsbrucker Straßennamen noch nicht allzu viel sagen oder deren geographisches Gedächtnis lückenhaft ist, habe ich die Standorte auf einer Karte eingetragen.

Der Sourcecode ist auf Github verfügbar und hier beschrieben.


Continue reading